Summary: One hundred thousand years ago, at least six human species inhabited the Earth. Today there is just one. Us. Homo sapiens. How did our species succeed in the battle for dominance? Why did our foraging ancestors come together to create cities and kingdoms? How did we come to believe in gods, nations, and human rights; to trust money, books, and laws; and to be enslaved by bureaucracy, timetables, and consumerism?
Bold, wide ranging, and provocative, Sapiens integrates history and science to challenge everything we thought we knew about being human: our thoughts, our actions, our heritage…and our future…Read more.
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Yuval Noah Harari: Sapiens Audio Book Summary
Sapiens is a book written by the Israeli historian and writer Yuval Noah Harari, published in the year 2014.
It gives a special treatment to evolutionary theory; Speaks about the history of humanity covering several aspects that have favored it to spread and have survived as a social structure.
It encompasses geographical, social, religious, psychological and anthropological implications of man’s existence.
The first part of the book, gives us essential notions for the understanding of the phenomenon of human evolution; It deals with the historical sustenance on which its theories are generated. He tells us about the origins of man since the Homo species appears on Earth until it evolves in Homo Sapiens.
It provides data and examples that help the reader to better understand the phenomenon of evolution, for example, in the first part of the book, mentions that humans can only be organized in groups of up to 150 people; The big cities that grow to disproportionate measures, do it based on fiction. What is referred to by fiction is that they are organized thanks to common mythological thoughts about ideology, such as traditions, nationalism, human rights, justice, among others that achieve a kind of social cohesion.
The second stage of the book deals with what the author calls the Neolithic Revolution, that is, when the man went from being nomadic to being a sedentary farmer and rancher, which led to the appearance of regulatory and control organizations and forms of Ordering goods, culminating in the origin of the distinction of social classes in groups.
Harari states that the development of agriculture was not the best thing that could happen to the man, on the contrary, when he was hunter and nomad, the food was more varied. He thinks that the plants domesticated the man, making him stay in one place and forcing him to protect his property. Agriculture caused the accumulation of food, but it did not mean that they were quality food. Agriculture also contributed to overpopulation.
The next section is about the modern age, where globalization has its beginnings with the consolidation of great powers like the English and Spanish empires. There is talk of the role of religions in society, how polytheisms favor tolerance and inclusion, while monotheism or fanaticism favor discrimination and ideological intolerance
The last section is about the scientific revolution that began in the seventeenth century and continues with inventions and scientific discoveries to this day. It covers the most important findings from the industrial revolution to the recent ones in genetics, for example, the creation of a human brain inside a computer.
It is a book that gives an important chair of universal history, at the same time that it gives an approach of psychological and cultural implications in the development of the civilizations and makes a critique of the problems that cause the religions.
It is an interesting book that stimulates reflection and helps to understand many phenomena that are repeated in social organizations, or to compare forms of life among civilizations. One may or may not agree with the theories of Yuval noah harari, which is true, is that it raises questions worthy of being reasoned and discussed.